2017年3月29日星期三

All belong to the dark tea(黑茶), where is different?

      According to the six major tea type, Hunan dark tea, Yunnan Pu'er tea, Guangxi Liubao tea are dark tea, what is the difference between them?
      In taxology, Pu'er tea belong to dark tea category, because the two types of tea are border sale tea and two kinds of tea is compressing type, and the more aged the better the taste, the stronger the pharmacological function, classification according to it. In fact, according to the classification principle of six kinds of tea, there is a big difference between the two teas in the process characteristics and quality characteristics.
      The traditional Pu'er Tea belongs to the sun dried maocha called Yunnan tea, however the dark tea have its characteristic process pile fermentation in the initial processing. The key to pile fermentation is microbial metabolism, although Pu'er Tea will have a microorganism take part in the maocha sun dried process, but the environment (temperature and humidity) is different, Pu'er Tea is to promote the growth and reproduction of beneficial microorganisms, however the dark tea go through insolation, short time, moisture rapid evaporation, relatively speaking, there are activities that inhibit microbial activity. Just because of this, the quality characteristics of both of maocha is obviously different, Pu'er Tea raw material sun dried maocha , there are heavy green taste, bitter taste of soup, while dark maocha has no green flavor and there are spicy flavor, taste mellow gentle, bitter taste lighter, this is the difference between Hunan dark tea new products and Puer new products raw tea.
      In the later storage process, although it is a non enzymatic oxidation and microbial action as a mechanism of quality change, but because of the formation the material quality and quantity differences (two different mechanisms) in the maocha processing, so the product is different, it is the key that Hunan old dark tea is different from Yunnan aged raw tea.
      1973 year, post fermentation process of Pu'er tea, the fermentation is carried out under the condition of high temperature and high humidity, it has great difference from pile fermentation process of dark maocha. The first is the difference of reaction stroma, Pu'er Tea reaction stroma is reagent on the basis of sun dried maocha, the dark tea is the semi-finished products after fixation as reactants, the two can not be confused; Secondly, different reaction conditions (temperature and humidity), there is a certain difference in microbial population.
      According to Hunan agricultural university Professor Wen Qiongying determination: Pu'er tea in the fermentation process, microbe take aspergillus niger as an advantage, the Hunan dark tea is mainly candida microzyme. Because of this difference, make the material change of tea itself, there are some differences in metabolites. Of course, if Pu'er Tea carry out post fermentation under the condition of low temperature and humidity and short time, its quality characteristics may be closer to Hunan dark tea.
      In addition, because of the difference of Pu'er tea and Hunan dark tea in the raw materials of fresh leaves, It is also one of the reasons for the obvious difference in the concentration, color and foam resistance of tea. Pu'er tea raw materials is a big leaf species, the content of polyphenols was higher than Hunan dark tea of medium small leaf species, therefore, the concentration, color and resistance brew of tea soup are stronger than Hunan dark tea.
      In summary, because of the difference of raw material, processing technology and physical and chemical change mechanism, lead to two kinds of different quality style tea product, both have their own characteristics, who is superior and who is inferior? It cannot be expressed in the same language.
      Speaking from the quality style: Pu'er tea tea soup have strong taste, Hunan dark tea sweet pure and refreshing; Pu erh tea can lasting brew, Hunan dark tea aged aroma lingering charm.
      1. The tea soup color difference
      Pu'er tea tea soup color from green, indigo green to chestnut red, deep red, dark red, while the Hunan dark tea tea soup color from orange yellow to orange red.
      2. Taste difference
      Puer tea enter the mouth tea flavor strong, Hunan dark tea enter the mouth sweet. Pu erh tea can lasting brew, Hunan dark tea aged aroma lingering charm, especially in the sweet soup.
      3. Aroma difference
      Puer tea aroma is quite complex, because of the differences of the region, the craft, the place of storage, the storage time and so on, it presents different aroma, the overall feeling is rich and heavy. Hunan dark tea is relatively simple. Generally speaking, Pu'er tea aroma deep, Hunan dark tea is relatively open, hearty.
      4. Difference of leaf bottom
      The characteristics of leaf bottom depends on the raw material and processing technology, Yunnan Pu'er tea picking material is the whole bud and one bud two leaf or three leaf, and no need chopped. While because of Hunan dark tea have about stem requirements, the process uses the shredding process, the integrity of buds and leaves is poor(high quality dark tea have good leaf bottom integrity).
      5. Functional difference
      First reflected in the tea nature, modern Pu'er ripe tea and especially the old tea, when you drink it, you will have a feeling of heat, While the Hunan dark tea is cool and sweet thirst after drinking. Pu erh tea is unique on the protection of gastrointestinal function, performance is no stimulation to the stomach, drinking for a long time does not hurt the stomach. While the Hunan dark tea, especially old dark tea has a unique effect on the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, both have the effect of lowering blood pressure and blood fat, and it can strong and handsome, health beverage capable of long-term drinking. In addition, Hunan dark tea effect of reducing blood sugar, diabetes treatment is strong.
      The Liubao tea originate in Guangxi Xunjiang, He Jiang, Guilin, Yujiang etc. Liubao tea is famous, because of originating in Liubao country, Cangwu County of Guangxi Wuzhou Township.
      Liubao tea production has a long history, in the period of the northern and Southern Dynasties, "WU JUN LU"(《梧君录》) records: There is a big leaf tea in the South, called melon calamite, make tea with leaves,from bitter to mellow; Five or six Century, people generally have the habit of drinking tea in Guangdong and Guangxi; Pick fresh leaf, first manufacture tuo tea, cake and block compressed tea. Production in Guangxi may be more Liubao tea.
      Liubao tea form cord thick, the color of dark brown oil, endoplasmic soup colour red yellow, mellow aroma, taste mellow refreshing, leaf bottom yellow brown. Finished tea appearance colour dark smooth, tea soup red mellow, aroma mellow aged like areca, cool sweet, leaf bottom red brown, resistant to storage, the more aged the more aroma.
      Liubao tea mao tea processing technology is very similar to Hunan dark tea, processing technology of Liubao tea for: Fresh leaves -- wrapping -- the beginning of kneading - piling - complex rubbing - drying.
      After Liubao tea pressed forming, because of degree of compaction very light,  and the high moisture content of tea, so that adopt natural drying method. In Liubao tea, the growth of the bacteria flower is similar to Fucha flowers,   it is "eurotiumcristatum"(冠突散囊菌), so in terms of Liubao tea quality characteristics and functions should be consistent with the Hunan dark tea.